A global collaboration for research and innovation in Hydrogen Technology

2020 ANNUAL REPORT

Learn about ongoing Tasks and Members’ updates in 2020

TASK 38

FINAL REPORT

POWER-TO-HYDROGEN AND HYDROGEN-TO-X: SYSTEM ANALYSIS OF THE TECHNO-ECONOMIC, LEGAL AND REGULATORY CONDITIONS

Report coordinated by
Olfa Tlili, Sébastien de Rivaz, and Paul Lucchese
CEA-Université-Paris-Saclay
September 2020

POWER – TO – X DEMONSTRATION ROADMAP 

TASK 38 – POWER-TO-HYDROGEN AND HYDROGEN-TO-X

Report coordinated by
Olfa Tlili, Sébastien de Rivaz, and Paul Lucchese
CEA-Université-Paris-Saclay
June 2021

GRID SERVICES
Electrolysers and fuel cells could provide services to the grid, both ancillary Services (frequency regulations and reserves) and grid balancing.

Task 38

ELECTROLYSIS
Electrolysis is one of the most promising pathways for future hydrogen production. Splitting the water molecule into its components (hydrogen and oxygen) with electricity in an electrochemical device called electrolyser.

TiD: Renewable Hydrogen Production

Task 38 - Task 35 - Task 33 - Task 9 - Task 4

Task 5

REFORMING - DIRECT CRACKING
Hydrogen can be produced from fossil fuels (grey/brown/blue/turquoise H2). The associated GHG emissions will depend on the process used and on whether CCS is implemented in the plant.
Currently the main hydrogen production pathway is Steam Methane Reforming, using Natural Gas.

Task 33 - Task 23 - Task 16 - Task 9 - Task 1

FOSSIL FUELS
The electricity used in the electrolysis can also (partially) come directly from electric generation plants that use fossil fuels and transported via the grid to the electrolyzer. This source leads to high GHG emissions.

Task 38

NUCLEAR
Both the electricity and heat produced in nuclear plants can be used for the production of hydrogen through electrolysis.
The main advantages being stability and low emissions.

TiD: Hydrogen from Nuclear Energy

Task 25

WIND & SOLAR
Electrolyzers can feed directly from renewable energy plants (wind, solar, hydropower…). With zero emissions associated with the process the produced hydrogen would be green. This presents a main challenge: intermittency (medium - low load factors for the electrolyser).

Task 38 - Task 24

BIOMASS
Hydrogen can be produced from biomass and related products (such as bioalcohols, biogas…) through several processes: steam reforming, photobiological paths...

TiD: Renewable Hydrogen Production

Task 35 - Task 34 - Task 27 - Task 21 - Task 15 - Task 9

R&D PRODUCTION METHODS
There are as well other hydrogen production pathways being investigated, with lower TRL or lower implementation such as water photolysis, thermolysis, thermochemical water splitting...

TiD: Renewable Hydrogen Production

Task 35 - Task 26 - Task 25 - Task 20 - Task 14 - Task 10 - Task 9 - Task 6

HYDROGEN STORAGE
Hydrogen storage is one of the critical steps of the whole value chain.
Hydrogen is difficult to store: as a gas, it has 7% of the air’s density and as a liquid, it has 7% of the water’s density.
At atmospheric pressure, H2 liquifies below -253 °C

TiD: Underground Hydrogen Storage

Task 40

Task 31 - Task 22 - Task 17 - Task 12 - Task 7

CONVERT TO CARRIERS
Hydrogen can be converted through chemical reactions into other components with higher density easier to store and transport such as methanol, ammonia, liquid organic hydrogen carriers (LOHC)...

TiD: Hydrogen Export Value Chains

AGRICULTURE
Hydrogen is the main component of ammonia (NH3), mainly used in the production of fertilizers.
OVERSEA EXPORTS
In the globalized world we live in, there is a big potential market for international hydrogen trade. Producing hydrogen in massive quantities in those regions with access to low cost electricity and/or good renewable energy resources and exporting it to other countries.

TiD: Hydrogen Export Value Chains

RESIDENTIAL APPLICATIONS
Hydrogen can be used to cover the energy needs in buildings (both in terms of electricity and heat). Combined Heat and Power units are very well suited for this application (CHP).

Task 29

INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS
Hydrogen can be used in industry in three ways: as a feedstock, as an alternative way to decarbonize processes (e.g. iron reduction) and/or to produce high-grade heat.
POWER TO POWER
Hydrogen can be transformed into electricity using fuel cells. One of the main applications of this is what is known as “Power to power” when excess renewable electricity is used to produce hydrogen that is then stored and transformed back into electricity when renewable production does not meet the demand.

Task 38

FUEL CELL & ICE VEHICLES
Hydrogen can be used to decarbonized transport either directly using internal combustion engines or in electric vehicles by producing electricity on-board using fuel cells.

Task 28

CONVERT TO SYNTHETIC FUELS
Hydrogen can also be converted into synthetic fuels to decarbonize aviation and shipping.

Task 39

PRIMARY APPLICATIONS
Hydrogen can be used to decarbonize primary sectors such as mining and mineral processing.

TiD:Hydrogen Applications in the Mining, Resources and Mineral Processing Sectors

SAFETY
Hydrogen safety is a cross-cutting topic that has been historically covered in the Hydrogen TCP through Tasks that study comprehensively all the steps of the value chain from the safety perspective.

Task 37

Task 31 - Task 19 - Task 7

DATA & MODELING
The correct representation of hydrogen in energy system modeling is key to properly define decarbonization scenarios. The validation of the hydrogen data is critical.

Task 41

Task 30 - Task 13 - Task 8 - Task 3

ENERGY SYSTEM ANALYSIS
Hydrogen has many transversal applications and can be produced by a number of energy sources therefore it will be the key to sector coupling and a future integrated energy system.

Task 38

Task 29 - Task 18 - Task 11

LCA
Life Cycle Assessment of the whole hydrogen value chain and all the steps of the processes is needed to fully understand the implications of the implementation of these technologies.

Task 36

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