Task 38 - Power-to-Hydrogen and Hydrogen-to-X (2015-2020)
The “Power-to-hydrogen” concept means that hydrogen is produced via electrolysis. Electricity supply can be either grid, off-grid or mixed systems. “Hydrogen-to-X” implies that the hydrogen supply concerns a large portfolio of uses: transport, natural gas grid, re-electrification through hydrogen turbines or fuel cells, general business of merchant hydrogen for energy or industry, and ancillary services.
Task 36 - Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment (2014-2017)
Task 36 is the successor to Task 30 – Global Hydrogen Systems Analysis (2010-2014), the first IEA HIA analysis task. Its goal was to facilitate decision-making in the hydrogen energy sector by providing a robust and comprehensive methodological framework for the sustainability assessment of hydrogen energy systems.
Task 35 - Renewable Hydrogen Production (2014-2017)
Develop technologies to produce hydrogen from clean, domestic resources at a delivered and dispensed cost of $2-$4/kg H2 by 2020. The objective of the Renewable Hydrogen Task is to establish an international network of experts in all the renewable hydrogen pathways to leverage developments in critical technology areas to improve communication and dissemination amongst the leading experts within the international community, and to establish a direct information link with the IEA-HIA Executive Committee for conveying concise summaries of the most important and promising technical progress in all of the renewable hydrogen pathways.
Task 34 - Biological Hydrogen for Energy and Environment (2014-2017)
Task 34 is the successor to Task 21 – Biohydrogen and Task 21 bis – Bioinspired Hydrogen. Its objective was to develop biohydrogen technology as part of an exemplar approach wherein energy and resources can be produced and utilised in integrated sustainable system and the integration of biohydrogen processes.
Task 33 - Local H2 Supply for Energy Applications (2013-2016)
The main purpose with Task 33 is to contribute to the development, evaluation, and harmonization of on-site hydrogen production technologies and systems in order to facilitate optimal use of local feedstock and removal of barriers for introduction into energy markets. This will be achieved by continuing and strengthening an existing IEA network of reformer and electrolysers technology providers and hydrogen end-users, including gas and car companies. Task 33 Local hydrogen production for energy applications (2013-2015) is a continuation of Task 23 Small scale reformers for on-site hydrogen supply (2006-2011) and Annex 16 Subtask C on Small stationary reformers for distributed hydrogen production (2002-2005).
Task 32 - H2 Based Energy Storage (2013-2018)
Task 32 addresses hydrogen-based energy storage by developing reversible or regenerative hydrogen storage materials. In these materials, the quantitative targets for hydrogen capacities vary significantly depending on the different applications, e.g. the gravimetric density is crucial for mobile applications whereas in stationary systems it plays a minor role. Therefore, for each specific application the targets related to volumetric density, thermodynamics, kinetics, cost and safety are totally different. The fundamental understanding of hydrogen storage mechanisms is the key for a breakthrough in the development of materials with improved properties. The focus is on hydrogen in solid compounds approached by experimental, engineering and modeling (both scientific and engineering) activities. Hydrogen storage was previously addressed in three Tasks: 12, 17 and 22.
Task 31 - Hydrogen Safety (2010-2013)
Task 30- Global Hydrogen Systems Analysis (2010-2014)
The goal of Task 30 was to perform analysis to enable informed decisions that lead to sustainable clean energy systems. The specific objectives were to build up a group analytical studies that answer expertise within the Hydrogen Implementing Agreement, to prepare detailed analytical studies that answer questions with respect to supply, demand, emissions and costs, and to collaborate with the IEA HQ in order to support the IEA (WEO and ETP) with technical and economical data.
Task 29- Distributed and Community Hydrogen (2010-2014)
This task was proposed as follow-on to Task 18: Evaluation of Integrated Systems. Its purpose was to further the optimisation and replication of green hydrogen within distributed and community energy systems by identifying situations where the use of hydrogen is appropriate and assessing the technical, environmental, economic and social benefits of such systems.
Task 28- Large Scale Hydrogen Delivery Infrastructure (2010-2014)
Development of hydrogen vehicles has come to a point where critical decision must be made to determine if large quantity of FCEV will become a substantial portion of the future automobile. The creation of such FCEV depends on improvement in vehicle efficiency and future integration of renewable energy into the infrastructure. Task 28 is dedicated to analyze and model the possible outcomes and scenarios of achieving a sustainable hydrogen economy.
Task 27- Near-Term Market Routes to Hydrogen by Co-Utilization of Biomass as a Renewable Energy Source with Fossil Fuels (2008-2011)
The overall objective of Task 27 was to advance the development of hydrogen production based on renewable sources in the market place, focusing on biomass and on opportunities of interest for industrial application.
Task 26- WaterPhotolysis (2008-2011)
The encouraging results from Task 14 and Task 20 have been summarized- leading to the new Materials R&D of Task 26. Its objectives included: intensification of international collaboration, advancement of photoelectrode materials science,demonstration of stable and efficient water splitting and promotion of water-photolysis through publications.
Task 25- High Temperature Hydrogen Production Processes (2007-2011)
Task 24- Wind Energy and Hydrogen Integration (2006-2011)
The main purpose of Task 24 was to provide an overview of technologies that have direct influence on development and implementation of systems integrating wind energy with hydrogen production. The Final Report concludes that the wind/hydrogen alternative appears to be an attractive storage option for overcoming a major drawback, the intermittent availability of wind energy, which affects both stand-alone and grid connected applications.
Task 23- Small Scale Reformers for OnSite Supply of Hydrogen (SSR for Hydrogen) (2006-2011)
Task 23’s main objective was to provide a basis for harmonization of technology for on-site hydrogen production from hydrocarbons and renewables. Four sub-objectives were outlined to meet this vision: first, a basis for harmonized capacities of on-site reformer units was developed. Second, the issues related to promotion of widespread on-site reformers were identified and examined.Third, a global market guide for the use of on-site reformers was created. Fourth, the technological links to renewables were described.
Task 22- Fundamental and Applied Hydrogen Storage Materials Development (2006-2012)
The specific goals and objectives for research on hydrogen storage materials in Task 22 were to : develop a reversible or regenerative hydrogen storage medium fulfilling international targets for hydrogen storage, to develop the fundamental and engineering understanding of hydrogen storage by various hydrogen storage media that have the capability of meeting Target A and to develop hydrogen storage materials and systems for use in stationary applications.
Task 21- BioInspired Hydrogen (2010-2014)
Bio-inspired Hydrogen and BioHydrogen (microbial) production processes have been active fields of basic and applied research for many years, with significant R&D programs currently carried out around the world. Task 21 was carrying out collaborative research activities in areas, which include H2 production using in vitro, biomimetic, and artificial photosynthetic systems; photosynthetic microbes; dark bacterial fermentations; biological/enzymatic fuel cells; and integrated combinations of these technologies. The overall objective was not only to sufficiently advance basic and applied science in these areas of research over a five-year period, but also to evaluate these technologies from the perspective of economics and sociology
Task 20- Hydrogen From Waterphotolysis (2004-2007)
Task 20 aims to develop highly efficient and stable photoelectrode/photocatalysis materials and associated system solutions for PEC water-splitting. The ultimate goal was to achieve sta-ble PEC device performance with a Solar-To-Hydrogen (STH) efficiency of 7-10%. The final report summarises the R&D progress made by the experts of Annex-20 during 2006. 3 expert meetings were held during 2006 (Lyon, France; Uppsala, Sweden; Tokyo, Japan).
Task 19- Hydrogen Safety (2004-2010)
The Goal of the Hydrogen Safety Task was to develop and conduct effective risk management techniques, testing methodologies, test data, and targeted information products that will facilitate the accelerated adoption of hydrogen systems. The specific objectives of this task were to develop testing methodologies around which collaborative testing programs can be conducted and to collect information on the effects of component or system failures of hydrogen systems.
Task 18- Integrated Systems Evaluation (2004-2006)
The purpose of Task 18 was to provide information about hydrogen integration into society around the world. The specific objectives were:to provide information, data and analysis to the Task members and the hydrogen community in general, to use modeling and analysis tools to evaluate hydrogen demonstration projects in participating countries and to support additional analytic activities as appropriate, including preparation of case studies from around the world with a focus on lessons learned.
Task 17- Solid and Liquid State Storage (2001-2006)
Task 17’s objectives were to develop a reversible hydrogen storage medium with 5 wt.% H2 recoverable at <80˚C and 1 atm absolute pressure, with charging and discharging rates suitable for practical use, to develop a low-cost, reversible hydrogen storage medium that can be rapidly charged and discharged at near-ambient temperatures, is tolerant to impurities in the H2 used, and discharges hydrogen of ultra high purity for use directly in a PEM fuel cell; and to develop the fundamental and engineering understanding of hydrogen storage by advanced hydrogen storage media that have the capability of meeting Targets 1 and 2.
Task 16- Hydrogen from Carbon-Containing Materials (2002-2005)
Task 16 concerns direct production routes for hydrogen, envisaged for the near and medium term, based on carbon containing materials. The overall objective of Task 16 has been to promote the development of economically viable and environmentally acceptable processes for hydrogen production by thermal processing of carbon-containing materials.
Task 15- Photobiological Production (1999-2004)
Task 15 on the Production and Utilisation of Hydrogen dealt specifically with “biophotolysis”, i.e. the biological production of hydrogen from water and sunlight using microalgal photosynthesis. The overall objective of Task 15 over five years was to advance the basic and early-stage applied science in this area with the main objective to develop hydrogen production by microalgae (both green algae and cyanobacteria) emphasizing on early-stage applied research on biophotolysis processes with intermediate CO2 fixation.
Task 14- Photoelectrolytic Production (1999-2004)
Task 14 focused on the development of materials and systems for the photoelectrochemical (PEC) production of hydrogen. It was successfully completed toward the very end of 2003 to make room for a new, broader research and development (R&D) program on photoelectrochemical (PEC) hydrogen production.
Task 13- Design and Optimization (1999-2001)
The overall objective of this task was to provide a means by which hydrogen energy systems could be compared to conventional energy systems. In order to meet this objective, existing, planned, and conceptual hydrogen demonstration systems were designed, optimized, and evaluated using a previously developed tool (see Annex 11). Emphasis was placed on comparative analysis of these integrated systems. The activities focused on near- and mid-term applications (3-10 years), with consideration of the transition to sustainable hydrogen energy systems.
Task 12- Metal Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage (1995-2000)
Task 11- Integrated Systems (1995-1998)
Task 11 was undertaken to develop tools to assist in the design and evaluation of existing and potential hydrogen demonstration projects. Emphasis was placed on integrated systems, from input energy to hydrogen end use. The activities were focused on near- and mid-term applications, with consideration of the transition from fossil-based systems to sustainable hydrogen energy systems. The participating countries were Canada, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Spain, Switzerland and the United States.
Task 10- Photoproduction of Hydrogen (1995-1998)
IEA’s recommendations for Task 10 were: to define and measure solar hydrogen conversion efficiencies as the ratio of the rate of generation of Gibbs energy of dry hydrogen gas (with appropriate corrections for any bias power) to the incident solar power (solar irradiance times the irradiated area); to expand support for pilot-plant studies of the PV cells plus electrolyzer option with a view to improving the overall efficiency and long-term stability of the system; to accelerate support, at a more fundamental level, for the development of photoelectro-chemical cells, with a view to improving efficiency, long-term performance and multi-cell systems for non-biased solar water splitting; to maintain and increase support for fundamental photobiological research with the aim of improving long-term stability, increasing efficiencies and engineering genetic changes to allow operation at normal solar irradiances; and to initiate a research program to examine the feasibility of coupling hydrogen evolution to the photodegradation of waste or polluting organic substances.